Here a short list of the most popular DNS terms. In case you are just starting to explore the world of tech and DNS, you should be familiar with them.
Domain Name System
Domain Name System, or just for short DNS, is a worldwide system that serves for linking the domain names to their IP addresses. It has a decentralized multi-level hierarchical structure. It is very helpful and beneficial for people. Without DNS, humans would have to type and memorize IP addresses which is a challenge. Thanks to it, we are able to use easy-to-remember domain names.
Anycast DNS is a routing mechanism that helps for easier and faster DNS resolution. It works by establishing one IP address in several name servers which are located in different geographical places. So, therefore when a DNS query is made, it is going to travel to the nearest and available server. That way, any chance for latency is reduced. Besides, if one of the servers is down and unable to answer queries, the rest of the servers are going to handle the load.
The IP address is the identifier that the Internet Protocol (IP) utilizes to name hosts on the Internet. Each IP address is created and allocated by IANA, and it is absolutely unique. Additionally, they are a requirement for devices to achieve communication and exchange of information on a network. There are two different types of IP addresses in present days – IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
The Domain Name is also an identifier, yet it is a text string that is also unique. It is applied for naming the different devices. People are using domain names every day to access various websites. They are way easier for memorizing rather than the IP addresses.
DNS query refers to the process of searching the IP address (an A record or an AAAA record) or other DNS records of a domain name. DNS query is triggered every time a user makes a request for a particular website. The Recursive DNS server receives that request.
The DNS zones are small segments used to administrate the DNS namespace. In addition, because each DNS zone is managed by a separate DNS administrator, the entire system is decentralized. In many cases, people mistake that the domain and the DNS zone are the same thing. Yet, that is not actually true. The domain could hold several DNS zones.
DNS records hold information and instructions about DNS. A single domain usually has various DNS records, and each of them reveals settings that are related to the domain. For instance, one of them gives information about the IP address (A record or AAAA record), and a different one could point to a service that is related to the domain, such as an email server (MX record). The complete collection of DNS records is kept safe in a zone file that is inside every DNS zone.
There are two primary types of DNS servers – authoritative name servers and recursive name servers.
Authoritative name servers: They keep the zone file of a precise zone. In addition, they are the ones capable of answering DNS queries. Such servers are, for instance, the root server, TLD server, and the authoritative name server for a precise domain.
Recursive name servers: Their purpose is to obtain the DNS query from the user and then seek the needed information. To achieve that, these servers travel through several servers until they have the answer. Imagine it like they are in the middle between the users and the authoritative name servers.